Wednesday, March 31, 2004

Hindustani Language

Lingua franca of modern India before partition (1947). Based on Khari Boli, a dialect originating in the area around Delhi, Meerut, and Saharanpur, it was spread throughout India by the Mughals and merchants. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the language was strongly promoted by an Englishman, John Borthwick Gilchrist (1759–1841), who wrote a Hindustani dictionary and a number of

Monday, March 29, 2004

Pharmaceutical Industry, Vaccines

Vaccines, viral or bacterial preparations used to induce active immunity, may be divided into three groups: toxoids, bacterial vaccines, and virus vaccines. Toxoids, such as diphtheria and tetanus toxoid, can be prepared only from toxin-producing bacteria. To produce diphtheria toxoid, for example, diphtheria bacilli are cultured under artificial conditions in

Saturday, March 27, 2004


Spanish  peninsular , plural  peninsulares , also called  gachupín , or  chapetón  any of the colonial residents of Latin America from the 16th through the early 19th century who had been born in Spain. The name refers to the Iberian Peninsula. Among the American-born in Mexico the peninsulars were contemptuously called gachupines (“those with spurs”) and in South America, chapetones (“tenderfeet”). They enjoyed the special favour of the Spanish crown and

Friday, March 26, 2004

Furniture, France

The transitional phase in French furniture from Baroque to Rococo is called Régence. The heavy, monumental style of the earlier part of Louis's reign was gradually replaced by a lighter and more fluent curvilinear style. The leading exponent of the Régence style was Charles Cressent, ébéniste (“cabinetmaker”) to the regent Philippe II, duc d'Orléans. In his work the ormolu

Wednesday, March 24, 2004

Tasmania, Self-government and Federation

Once the importation and exploitation of convicts had ended, the way opened for the grant of colonial self-government in 1855–56. Tasmania became the colony's official name, a portent of a happier age. Yet penalism had given the island an economic undergirding and historical import that have never been matched. Post-1860 Tasmania continued to be shadowed by its Vandiemonian

Monday, March 22, 2004


In the theatricalists' view, to turn one's back on naturalism was to draw inspiration from the spirit

Saturday, March 20, 2004


In agriculture, dried grasses and other foliage used as animal feed. Usually the material is cut in the field while still green and then either dried in the field or mechanically dried by forced hot air. Typical hay crops are timothy, alfalfa, and clover. The protein content of grasses and legumes decreases and fibre and lignified tissue increases as growing plants

Wednesday, March 17, 2004


After concluding a treaty with the emperor Claudius early in his conquest of Britain, which began in AD 43, Cartimandua was faced with a series of revolts by anti-Roman elements among her subjects. In 48, Roman forces intervened for the first

Monday, March 15, 2004

New Brunswick, Flag Of

Following the establishment of the Dominion of Canada, Queen Victoria signed a royal warrant on May 26, 1868, designating coats of arms for the four original provinces—Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick. The golden lion on red in the New Brunswick coat of arms may refer to the arms of England (a red shield with three golden lions) or to the arms of the duchy of Brunswick

Sunday, March 14, 2004

Mercator, Gerardus

Original name  Gerard De Cremer, or Kremer?  Flemish cartographer whose most important innovation was a map, embodying what was later known as the Mercator projection, on which parallels and meridians are rendered as straight lines spaced so as to produce at any point an accurate ratio of latitude to longitude. He also introduced

Thursday, March 11, 2004


Although antibiotics are released naturally into the soil by bacteria and fungi, they did not come into worldwide prominence until the introduction of penicillin in 1941. Since then they have revolutionized the treatment of bacterial infections

Wednesday, March 10, 2004


Town, capital of Lodi provincia, Lombardia (Lombardy) regione, northern Italy. It lies on the right bank of the Adda River, southeast of Milan. The original settlement (5th century BC) on the site of the present suburb of Lodi Vecchio obtained Roman citizenship in 89 BC as Laus Pompeia. Destroyed in the communal struggles of 1111 and by the Milanese in 1158, it was refounded on the present site

Monday, March 08, 2004

Jili, Al-

Little is known about al-Jili's personal life. Possibly after a visit to India in 1387, he studied in Yemen during 1393–1403. Of his more than 30 works, the most famous is Al-Insan al-kamil fi ma'rifat al-awakhir wa al-awa 'il (partial Eng. trans., Studies in Islamic

Sunday, March 07, 2004


Russian  Pereyaslav-khmelnitsky,  also spelled  Pereiaslav-khmelnitskii, or Perejaslav-chmel'nickij,  formerly  (until 1943) Pereyaslav, or Pereiaslav,   city, Kiev oblast (province), Ukraine. Pereyaslav-Khmelnytskyy has existed since the 10th century, when it was known as Pereyaslav-Russky. It was a border stronghold of the Kievan state but was overrun by Mongol Tatars in 1239. In 1654 Bohdan Khmelnytsky, a leader of the revolt against Polish domination of Ukraine, convened a council at Pereyaslav that submitted Ukraine to Russian

Saturday, March 06, 2004

Wichita Orogeny

A period of block faulting in the southern part of the Wichita–Arbuckle System in western Oklahoma and northern Texas. The uplift is dated from the Late Carboniferous epoch (formerly the Pennsylvanian period; the Late Carboniferous epoch occurred from 320 to 286 million years ago). The Apishipa–Sierra Grande uplift in eastern Colorado and northern New Mexico is of similar

Friday, March 05, 2004

China, The development of the Republic (1912–20)

The first half of the 20th century saw the gradual disintegration of the old order in China and the turbulent preparation for a new society. Foreign political philosophies undermined the traditional governmental system, nationalism became the strongest activating force, and civil wars and Japanese invasion tore the vast country and retarded its modernization.


Pinyin  Hami , Uighur  Qomul  city and oasis in eastern Uighur autonomous ch'ü (region) of Sinkiang, China. An important stage on the roads from Kansu province into Central Asia and to the west, Ha-mi was known to the Chinese in early times as I-wu, the name Ha-mi being the Chinese rendering of the Mongolian version (Khamil) of the Uighur name for the city. The Chinese occupied the oasis in early times, when

Thursday, March 04, 2004


Verbal blunder in which one word is replaced by another similar in sound but different in meaning. Although William Shakespeare had used the device for comic effect, the term derives from Richard Brinsley Sheridan's character Mrs. Malaprop, in his play The Rivals (1775). Her name is taken from the term malapropos (French: “inappropriate”) and is typical of Sheridan's practice

Tuesday, March 02, 2004

Armorial Ensign

Heraldic symbol carried on a flag or shield. The term is much misunderstood because of the popular use of ensign as a generic term for flag. A grant of arms or a matriculation (registration of armorial bearings) may in its text use the term ensigns armorial to mean the heraldic design of the bearer's arms. See heraldry.