Sunday, May 30, 2004

Wind Instrument, Reedpipes

Egypt also made clarinets, instruments composed of two canes with three sides of a rectangle cut obliquely in the upper end of the two single reeds. The term idioglottic is used to describe a reed cut from the tube itself. From four to six equidistant finger holes are cut in each cane, and blowing with the entire reed engulfed in the mouth cavity produces a pungent, tremulous

Saturday, May 29, 2004

Trade Disputes Act

(1906), British legislation that provided trade unions with immunity from liability for damages arising from strike actions. The background to the statute was a series of adverse court decisions affecting the capacity of trade unions to strike, culminating in the Taff Vale judgment of 1901. That judgment established that unions were legal corporations and as such their

Thursday, May 27, 2004

Cade, Jack

Cade was living in Sussex when, in 1449, he was accused of murdering a woman. He fled to France

Monday, May 24, 2004

Vitalian, Saint

Consecrated as St. Eugenius I's successor on July 30, 657, Vitalian soon dealt peacefully with monothelitism, a heresy maintaining that Christ had only one will. In 648 the Byzantine emperor Constans II had issued his Typos, an edict forbidding discussion of the monothelite question and attempting to impose unity

Sunday, May 23, 2004


The site of successive Roman, Frisian, and Frankish fortresses, Utrecht became

Thursday, May 20, 2004


Also called  Ramanujacarya, or Ilaiya Perumal (Tamil: Ageless Perumal [God])   South Indian Brahman theologian and philosopher, the single most influential thinker of devotional Hinduism. After a long pilgrimage, Ramanuja settled in Srirangam, where he organized temple worship and founded centres to disseminate his doctrine of devotion to the god Vishnu and his consort Sri. He provided an intellectual basis for the practice

Wednesday, May 19, 2004

Juba Ii

As a child of about five Juba was paraded in Rome in Caesar's triumphal procession after the death of Juba I but subsequently was given a good education in Italy. Octavian

Monday, May 17, 2004

Scandinavian Literature, 20th-century literary trends

The two greatest early 20th-century novelists

Friday, May 14, 2004

Giulini, Carlo Maria

Giulini studied under Bernardino Molinari at Rome's Accademia di Santa Cecilia. As violist for that institution's resident orchestra, he observed the work of such notables as Wilhelm Furtwängler, Otto Klemperer, and Bruno Walter. His conducting

Wednesday, May 12, 2004


Pinyin  Acheng,  formerly  (until 1909) Ashihho,   city in Heilungkiang sheng (province), China. Located southeast of Harbin (Ha-erh-pin) in the basin of the A-shih River, it is a collecting and commercial centre for a rich agricultural district that provides part of Harbin's food supply. A-ch'eng is also an industrial centre with brickworks, engineering works specializing in electrical equipment and other machinery,

Monday, May 10, 2004

Gaines, Ernest J.

When Gaines was 15, his family moved to California. He graduated from San Francisco State College (now San Francisco State University) in 1957 and attended

Saturday, May 08, 2004


Terrestrial body whose solid surface, abundant waters, and oxygen-rich atmosphere have combined to create conditions suitable for life. This article discusses the structure, composition, and properties of the solid Earth. For detailed treatment of its surface features, atmosphere, and waters, see the articles atmosphere, hydrosphere, ocean, river, lake, and continental

Thursday, May 06, 2004


Any member of an extinct order (Taeniodonta) of mammals that lived in North America throughout the Paleocene and into the middle Eocene Epoch (66.4 to 43 million years ago). The taeniodonts may have been related to early edentates (insect-eating mammals) and probably evolved from an insectivorous to an herbivorous diet. They were distinguished by high-crowned teeth extending

Wednesday, May 05, 2004

Setthathirat I

As the son of King Photisarath, Setthathirat was placed on the throne of the principality of Chiang Mai (now in northern Thailand) in 1546. When Photisarath died in the following