Tuesday, June 29, 2004

Appomattox Court House

In the American Civil War, site in Virginia of the surrender of the Confederate forces to those of the North on April 9, 1865. After an engagement with Federal cavalry, the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia was surrounded at Appomattox, seat of Appomattox county, Virginia, 25 miles east of Lynchburg. Three miles to the northeast, at the former county seat, known as Appomattox

Friday, June 25, 2004

Amici, Giovanni Battista

Amici served as professor of mathematics at the University of Modena from 1815 to 1825 and

Wednesday, June 23, 2004

Ear Disease

Ear diseases and hearing disorders are discussed in Michael E. Glasscock III, George E. Shambaugh, Jr., and Glenn D. Johnson (eds.), Surgery of the Ear, 4th ed. (1990), a well-illustrated text on diseases of the ear and their surgical correction; James Jerger (ed.), Hearing Disorders in Adults (1984); John Ballantyne, M.C. Martin, and Antony Martin (eds.), Deafness, 5th ed. (1993); Robert Thayer Sataloff and Joseph Sataloff, Hearing Loss, 3rd ed., rev. and expanded (1993); and David M. Vernick et al., The Hearing Loss Handbook (1993). George E. Shambaugh, “A Restudy of the Minute Anatomy of Structures in the Cochlea with Conclusions Bearing on the Solution of the Problem of Tone Perception,” The American Journal of Anatomy, 7(2):245–257 (Aug. 1, 1907), was the first detailed description of the hearing-nerve end organ in the cochlea, where sound waves are converted into nerve impulses depending upon the pitch of the tone. George E. Shambaugh, Jr., and Alexandre Petrovic, “Effects of Sodium Fluoride on Bone: Application to Otosclerosis and Other Decalcifying Bone Diseases,” JAMA, 204(11):969–973 (June 10, 1968), summarizes research on the arrest, by means of sodium fluoride, of progressive deafness caused by otosclerosis. Philip H. Beales, Noise, Hearing, and Deafness (1965), is a useful review in lay language of the problem of deafness and the adverse influence on hearing of excess noise exposure; a more recent text is Karl D. Kryter, The Handbook of Hearing and the Effects of Noise: Physiology, Psychology, and Public Health (1994). Brief reports by panels of experts assembled by the National Institutes of Health are issued as NIH Consensus Statements; several statements are of clinical concern in the field of hearing and deafness: “Noise and Hearing Loss,” 8(1):1–24 (Jan. 22–24, 1990), also available with the same title in JAMA, 263(23):3185–3190 (June 20, 1990), “Early Identification of Hearing Impairment in Infants and Young Children,” 11(1):1–24 (Mar. 1–3, 1993), and “Cochlear Implants in Adults and Children,” 13(2):1–30 (May 15–17, 1995), also available with the same title in JAMA, 274(24):1955–1961 (Dec. 27, 1995). More information on the success of cochlear implants is available in Jeffrey P. Harris, John P. Anderson, and Robert Novak, “An Outcomes Study of Cochlear Implants in Deaf Patients,” Archives of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, 121(4):398–404 (April 1995).

Monday, June 21, 2004

Alcorn State University

Public, coeducational institution of higher learning near Lorman, Mississippi, U.S. It is a land-grant university consisting of schools of Arts and Sciences, Business, Education and Psychology, Nursing, and Agriculture and Applied Sciences. The university's School of Nursing is located in Natchez. In addition to undergraduate studies, Alcorn State offers several

Sunday, June 20, 2004


Argentina's economy, which is one of the more powerful in the region, has been dominated by manufacturing and agriculture since the 19th century, but its service sector has grown increasingly important. Argentina produces more grain and raises more cattle than any nation in Latin America except Brazil, and its receipts from tourism are second in the region only to

Tuesday, June 15, 2004

Hooch, Pieter De

Hooch was a pupil of Claes Berchem at Haarlem. From 1653 he was in the service of Justus de Grange and lived in Delft, The Hague, and Leiden. From 1654 to 1657 he was a member of the painters' guild of Delft, but after that date there are no traces of his career until about 1667, when

Monday, June 14, 2004

Dach, Simon

After earning his living for many years as a private

Saturday, June 12, 2004


A system of tiny filaments or fibres that is present in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells (cells containing a nucleus). The cytoskeleton organizes other constituents of the cell, maintains the cell's shape, and is responsible for the locomotion of the cell itself and the movement of the various organelles within it. The filaments that comprise the cytoskeleton are

Thursday, June 10, 2004


Seed or pod of certain leguminous plants of the family Fabaceae, originally of Vicia faba, an Old World species called broad bean, or fava bean. The mature seeds of the principal beans used for food, except soybeans (q.v.), are rather similar in composition, although they differ widely in eating quality. Rich in protein and providing moderate amounts

Tuesday, June 08, 2004

Gagern, Friedrich (ludwig Balduin Karl Moritz), Freiherr Von (baron Of)

Hans Christoph von Gagern's eldest son, a German soldier and administrator, and military commander of several Dutch provinces, who served as chief of staff during the wars against the Belgian rebels opposing Dutch rule. Returning to Germany, he led the fight against the republican revolutionaries in Baden in

Saturday, June 05, 2004

Shamanism, Differences in quality and degree

Shamans differ greatly in quality and in degree. Difference of quality is manifest in the kind of spirits the shaman communicates with. “White” shamans, for example, apply to a benevolent deity and the good spirits, while “black” shamans call on a wicked deity and the wicked spirits. The difference in degree is exemplified in the belief, of the Sakha (Yakut) people of northeastern

Friday, June 04, 2004

Cage, John

The son of an inventor, Cage briefly attended Pomona College and then traveled in Europe for a time. Returning to the United States in 1931, he studied music with Richard Buhlig, Arnold

Wednesday, June 02, 2004


Island and city, southern Philippines, in the Celebes Sea. Basilan island lies 5 miles (8 km) off the southern tip of the Zamboanga Peninsula of Mindanao, across the Basilan Strait. With an area of 495 square miles (1,282 square km), it is the largest and northernmost island of the Sulu Archipelago. Most of the island consists of rugged or rolling forested uplands, with several volcanic