Thursday, July 29, 2004


City, Málaga province, in the autonomous community (region) of Andalusia, southern Spain. It is situated near the beach resort region of Costa del Sol. The site was first settled by the Turdetanos, an Iberian tribe, and was later occupied by the Romans, who established the town of Lacibis. In 713 the Arabs took the town, calling it Cohine (Pleasant Paradise), the basis of its present

Wednesday, July 28, 2004


Any of the group of mammals that includes elephants and their extinct relatives such as mammoths and mastodons. Although only three species of elephant are extant today, more than 160 extinct proboscidean species have been identified from remains found on all continents except Australia and Antarctica. Most of these were called gomphotheres, which belonged to

Saturday, July 24, 2004

Leaning Tower Of Pisa

Italian  Torre Pendente di Pisa   medieval structure in Pisa, Italy, that is famous for the settling of its foundations, which caused it to lean 5.5 degrees (about 15 feet [4.5 metres]) from the perpendicular by the late 20th century. The bell tower, begun in 1173 as the third and final structure of the city's cathedral complex, was designed to stand 185 feet (56 metres) high and was constructed of white marble. Three of its eight stories

Wednesday, July 21, 2004


Latin  Venerabilis,   title or respectful form of address, used from very early times in Europe, especially for certain clergy or for laymen of marked spiritual merit. St. Augustine in some epistles cited the term in reference to bishops, and Philip I of France was styled venerabilis and venerandus (“reverential”). The venerable by which Saint Bede is commonly known (“the Venerable Bede,” or “Bede

Tuesday, July 20, 2004


Also called  Alpha Tauri,   reddish giant star in the constellation Taurus. Aldebaran is one of the 15 brightest stars, with an apparent visual magnitude of 0.86. Its diameter is approximately 50 times that of the Sun. It is accompanied by a very faint (13th magnitude) red companion star. Aldebaran lies about 50 light-years from the Earth. The star was once thought to be a member of the Hyades cluster, but in fact

Sunday, July 18, 2004

Vedic Religion

The only extant Vedic materials are the texts known as the Vedas, which were written down over a period of about 10 centuries, from about the 15th to the 5th century BC, this being the period when Vedism was a living force. The Vedic corpus is written in an archaic Sanskrit. The most important texts are also the oldest ones. They are the four collections (Samhita) that we call the Veda,

Friday, July 16, 2004

Aiken, Joan

In full  Joan Delano Aiken   prolific British author of fantasy, adventure, horror, and suspense tales for both juvenile and adult readers. Perhaps best-known as the inventor of a genre called the “unhistorical romance,” Aiken wrote tales that combine humour and action with traditional mythic and fairy tale elements. Many of these works

Tuesday, July 13, 2004

Dagobert Ii

The son of Sigebert III, Dagobert was packed off to an Irish monastery following the death of his father in 656, and the Austrasian throne was taken by Childebert the Adopted, son of Grimoald, the Austrasian mayor of the palace. After the downfall of Grimoald and Childebert,

Monday, July 12, 2004

Guatemala, History Of

Following independence from Spain (1821) and Mexico (1823), Guatemala was the political centre of the United Provinces of Central America. The principal factor in the collapse of the federation was the backcountry uprising in Guatemala led by Rafael Carrera, who established himself as the military arbiter of the state (1838) and, from the executive's chair or from behind it, controlled

Saturday, July 10, 2004

Djibouti, Language

The republic recognizes two official languages: French and Arabic. However, Somali is the most widely spoken language, although it is rarely written and is not taught in the schools. The use of Afar is mostly restricted to Afar areas. Many Djiboutians are multilingual.

Thursday, July 08, 2004

Frederic, Harold

Interested at an early age in photography and journalism, Frederic became a reporter and by 1882 was editor of the Albany Evening Journal. In 1884 he went to London as the correspondent for The New York Times. He remained there for the rest

Monday, July 05, 2004

Bonacolsi Family

The signoria (lordship) of the Bonacolsi was first established by Pinamonte (died 1293), who allied himself with other powerful families to eliminate his rivals

Saturday, July 03, 2004


Original name  Matsuwaka-Maru,  also called  Han'en, Shakku, Zenshin, or Gutoku Shinran, posthumous name Kenshin Daishi   Buddhist philosopher and religious reformer whose concern for the salvation of the masses apart from those endowed with self-enlightenment led him to establish (1224) the Jodo Shinshu (True Pure Land sect), the largest school of Buddhism in modern Japan. His monumental anthology Kyogyoshinsho (1224; “Teaching-Action-Faith-Attainment”) made an original contribution

Friday, July 02, 2004


Solemn choral lyric of invocation, joy, or triumph, originating in ancient Greece where it was addressed to Apollo in his guise as Paean, physician to the gods. Paeans were sung at banquets following the boisterous dithyrambs, at the festivals of Apollo, and at public funerals. It was the custom for them to be sung by an army on the march and before going into battle, when