Tuesday, August 31, 2004

China, The Plateau of Tibet

This great massif occupies about one-fourth of the whole country. A large part of the plateau lies at elevations above 13,000–15,000 feet. The border ranges of the plateau are even higher, with individual peaks rising to heights of 23,000–26,000 feet. The interior slopes of these border mountains, as a rule, are gentle, while the exterior slopes are very steep. In its eastern and southern periphery,

Saturday, August 28, 2004

Voynovich, Vladimir

After serving in the Soviet army from 1951 to 1955 and attending the Moscow Pedagogical Institute (1957–59), Voynovich worked as a skilled labourer and then as an editor of radio programs. He published such well-received fiction as the short story “My

Thursday, August 26, 2004

New Apostolic Church

Church organized in Germany in 1863 as the Universal Catholic Church, by members of the Catholic Apostolic Church who believed that new apostles must be appointed to replace deceased apostles and rule the church until the Second Coming of Christ. The present name was adopted in 1906. Its doctrines are similar to the parent church, but the new church was influenced by continental

Wednesday, August 25, 2004

Abdülmecid Ii

Following Ottoman custom, Abdülmecid was confined to the palace until he was 40, during which time his father, Abdülaziz, and three of his cousins reigned. When his fourth cousin took the throne as Mehmed VI in 1918, Abdülmecid became crown prince.

Monday, August 23, 2004


In the closing decades of the 19th century, foreign powers, particularly Russia and Japan, began to eye Manchuria as a fruitful field for imperialist expansion. The conflict between Russia and Japan for the control of Manchuria first raged over the possession of the Liaotung Peninsula. As the prize of its victory in the Sino-Japanese War of 1894–95, Japan demanded from China

Friday, August 20, 2004

Dubnow, Simon Markovich

Dubnow early ceased to practice Jewish rituals. He later came to believe that his vocation as a historian of Judaism was as true to the faith of his ancestors as were the Talmudic

Wednesday, August 18, 2004


Also called  Cephalonia , Modern Greek  Kefallinía  island, largest of the Ionian Islands, west of the Gulf of Patraïkós. With the island of Ithaca (Itháki) and smaller nearby islands, it forms the nomós (department) of Kefallinía in modern Greece. The island, 302 square miles (781 square km) in area, is mountainous, with Mount Aínos (ancient Mount Aenos; 5,341 feet [1,628 m]) often snowcapped for months. Except for the Raki, there are few permanent streams,

Monday, August 16, 2004


Town, northwestern Senegal. It is located about 50 miles (80 km) northeast of Dakar, the national capital. Senegal's principal mineral exports (aluminum and especially calcium phosphates) are quarried near Tivaouane. The town is linked by road and rail with the ports of Dakar and Saint-Louis and serves as the country's main centre for the Sufi-Muslim Tijaniyah sect. The Wolof people

Sunday, August 15, 2004

Progressive Party

(1924), in the United States, a short-lived independent political party assembled for the 1924 presidential election by forces dissatisfied with the conservative attitudes and programs of the Democrats and Republicans. The Progressive Party included liberals, agrarians, Republican progressives, socialists, and labour representatives. It chose as its presidential candidate Senator Robert M. La Follette of Wisconsin, who in 1911 had organized what became an independent party formally called the Progressive but generally known as the Bull Moose Party (q.v.). The 1924 Progressives pledged a “housecleaning” of executive departments, public control of natural resources, public ownership of railways, and tax reduction. The party polled only some 17 percent of the popular vote and did not influence the election, in which President Calvin Coolidge and the Republicans won a majority. The Progressive Party dissolved when La Follette died the following year.

Friday, August 13, 2004

Well-made Play

French  Pièce Bien Faite,   a type of play, constructed according to certain strict technical principles, that dominated the stages of Europe and the United States for most of the 19th century. The technical formula of the well-made play, developed around 1825 by the French playwright Eugène Scribe, called for complex and highly artificial plotting, a build-up of suspense, a climactic scene in which

Tuesday, August 10, 2004


In criminal law, sovereign act of oblivion or forgetfulness (from Greek amnesia) for past acts, granted by a government to persons who have been guilty of crimes. It is often conditional upon their return to obedience and duty within a prescribed period. Amnesty is granted usually for political crimes against the state, such as treason, sedition, or rebellion. It is addressed

Monday, August 09, 2004

Ta'liq Script

In Arabic calligraphy, cursive style of lettering developed in Iran in the 10th century. It is thought to have been the creation of Hasan ibn Husayn 'Ali of Fars, but, because Khwajah 'Abd al-Malik Buk made such vast improvements, the invention is often attributed to him. The rounded forms and exaggerated horizontal strokes that characterize the ta'liq letters were derived primarily

Saturday, August 07, 2004


Town, administrative headquarters of Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu state, southeastern India. Coimbatore is located on the Noyil River, 300 mi (480 km) south of Madras, on the Madras–Calicut (now Kozhikode) road. Long important as commanding the Palghat Gap to the west coast, it is a trade and processing centre for agricultural produce and a manufacturing centre for agricultural

Wednesday, August 04, 2004


In all strictly ascetic movements, celibacy (q.v.) has been regarded as the first commandment. Virgins and celibates emerged among the earliest Christian communities and came to occupy a prominent status. Among the earliest Mesopotamian Christian communities, only the celibates were accepted as full members of the church, and in some religions only celibates have

Tuesday, August 03, 2004

Diefenbaker, John G(eorge)

After serving in World War I, Diefenbaker practiced law in Saskatchewan. He was made king's counsel in 1929. In 1936 he was chosen as leader of the Saskatchewan Conservative Party, serving at that post until 1940, when

Sunday, August 01, 2004

Moreau, Gustave

The only influence that really affected Moreau's development was that of his master, Théodore Chassériau (1819–56), an eclectic painter whose depictions of enigmatic sea goddesses deeply impressed his student. In the Salon of 1853 he exhibited “Scene