Thursday, September 30, 2004

Psamtik Ii

The Greek historian Herodotus, writing in the 5th century BC, refers briefly to an Ethiopian war of Psamtik, an expedition that contemporary records prove to have been of great importance. Perhaps suspecting a Cushite threat to Egypt,

Gama, Vasco Da, 1er Conde (1st Count) Da Vidigueira

Portuguese navigator whose voyages to India (1497–99, 1502–03, 1524) opened up the sea route from western Europe to the East by way of the Cape of Good Hope and thus ushered in a new era in world history. He also helped make Portugal a world power.

Tuesday, September 28, 2004


The art of making inanimate objects appear to move. Animation is an artistic impulse that long predates the movies. History's first recorded animator is Pygmalion of Greek and Roman mythology, a sculptor who created a figure of a woman so perfect that he fell in love with her and begged Venus to bring her to life. Some of the same sense of magic, mystery, and transgression

Arnold, Matthew

Lastly Arnold turned to religion, the constant preoccupation and true centre of his whole life, and wrote St. Paul and Protestantism (1870), Literature and Dogma (1873), God and the Bible (1875), and Last Essays on Church and Religion (1877). In these books, Arnold really founded Anglican “modernism.” Like all religious liberals, he came under fire from two sides: from the orthodox, who accused him

Sunday, September 26, 2004


Perception that occurs independently of the known sensory processes. Usually included in this category of phenomena are telepathy, or thought transference between persons; clairvoyance, or supernormal awareness of objects or events not necessarily known to others; and precognition, or knowledge of the future. Scientific investigation of these and similar

Saturday, September 25, 2004

Visual Pigment

It is believed that all animals employ the same basic pigment structure, consisting of a coloured molecule, or chromophore (the carotenoid retinal, sometimes called retinene), and a protein, or opsin, of moderate size.

Friday, September 24, 2004

Egypt, The Tulunid dynasty (868–905)

Though short-lived, the Tulunid dynasty succeeded in restoring a measure of Egypt's ancient glory. For the first time since the pharaohs, Egypt became virtually autonomous and the bulk of its revenues remained within its borders. What is more, Egypt became the centre of a small empire when Ibn Tulun conquered Syria in 878–879. These developments were paralleled in other provinces

Wednesday, September 22, 2004


The supposed author of a chronicle of Frankish history composed between 658 and 661. All the extant manuscripts of this chronicle are anonymous, and the attribution of it to “Fredegarius” dates from the edition of it by Claude Fauchet in 1579. The author set a fairly detailed history of his own times in the framework of a universal chronicle, drawing, for early Merovingian

I Am Movement

Although not consistent in their teachings, the Ballards essentially

Monday, September 20, 2004


City and capital, Okinawa ken (prefecture), Japan. It lies on southwestern Okinawa Island, which is one of the Ryukyu Islands. Long the chief city of the archipelago, it contains the Sogen Temple, burial place of the rulers of the early Okinawa kingdom. The Shurei Gate is a fine example of Ryukyuan architecture. Naha was the seat of the post-World War II U.S. military and Okinawan

Mathews, Charles

The son of a bookseller, Mathews was educated at Merchant Taylors School, Crosby, Lancashire. After acting in the provinces, primarily at York, he first appeared on the stage in

Sunday, September 19, 2004

Arts, Central Asian, Dance and theatre

Mircea Eliade, Le Chamanisme et les techniques archaïques de l'extase (1951; 2nd ed., 1968; Eng. trans., Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy, rev. ed., 1964), a classic study of the rituals, costumes, and symbolisms of shamanic performances; Luther G. Jerstad (op. cit.), an analytical and descriptive study of 'cham as performed in the Tengpoche monastery of northern Nepal. Materials and translations of some morality plays have been published by Marion H. Duncan in his Harvest Festival Dramas of Tibet (1955) and More Harvest Festival Dramas of Tibet (1967); and a study of the “Moon-cuckoo” play of the Mongols has been published in Japanese by Hidehiro Okada. Information on the performing arts may be found scattered in various other publications, but it is usually descriptive in nature and deals with only one genre. As yet no scholar has carried out a comprehensive analytical study of the origins and interrelations of dance and theatre in Central Asian regions.

Friday, September 17, 2004

Cariboo Road

Wagon trail that was constructed (1862–65) in the Fraser River valley, in southern British Columbia, Canada, to serve the Cariboo gold rush. The trail extended more than 400 miles (644 km) from Yale, at the head of steamboat navigation on the Fraser River, through Ashcroft, to Barkerville in the Cariboo Mountains. The project was regarded as an engineering triumph because of the precipitous

Wednesday, September 15, 2004

Christensen, Lew (farr)

Trained at the School of American Ballet, New York City, Christensen first performed in vaudeville with his brothers, Willam and Harold, then appeared with such companies

Hugh Of Saint-victor

Of noble birth, Hugh joined the Augustinian canons at the monastery of Hamersleben, near Halberstadt (now in Germany). He went to Paris (c. 1115) with his uncle, Archdeacon Reinhard of Halberstadt, and settled at

Tuesday, September 14, 2004

Yamasee War

(1715–16), in British-American colonial history, conflict between Indians, mainly Yamasee, and British colonists in the southeastern area of South Carolina, resulting in the collapse of Indian power in that area. Embittered by settlers' encroachment upon their land and by unresolved grievances arising from the fur trade, a group of Yamasees rose and killed 90 white traders

Monday, September 13, 2004


Pauropods range in length from 0.5 to 2 mm (0.02 to 0.08 inch). The pauropod

Saturday, September 11, 2004


Nyamwezi warlord of central Africa whose ability to unite the many hitherto separate Nyamwezi clans into a powerful kingdom by the 1870s gave him strategic control of Arab trade routes and threatened the preeminence of the Arabs' colony in Unyanyembe (near present Tabora, Tanzania). His capital, Urambo (now in Tanzania), became a major rival trading

Indonesia, Volcanoes

Volcanoes play a major role in soil development and enrichment,

Friday, September 10, 2004

Bonard, Louis-adolphe

Entering service in the French Navy in 1825, Bonard was promoted to lieutenant in 1835, captain in 1842, and was commissioned vice admiral in 1862. He was captured by Algerians after a shipwreck in 1830 and later helped quell

Wednesday, September 08, 2004

Chase Manhattan Corporation, The

The firm originated in the final days of the 18th century. On April 2, 1799, at the urging of such civic leaders as Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton (later noted rivals), the New York state legislature chartered the Manhattan Company to build a water supply system for New York City. The original

Baïf, Jean-antoine De

Baïf received a classical education and in 1547 went with Pierre de Ronsard to study under Jean Dorat at the Collège de Coqueret, Paris, where they planned, with Joachim du Bellay, to transform French poetry by imitating the ancients and the Italians.

Tuesday, September 07, 2004

Saturnian Verse

Also called  Saturnian metre  the ancient Latin verse used mainly by Livius Andronicus and Gnaeus Naevius before the adoption of Greek verse forms by later Latin writers. Little is known about its origins or whether its rhythm was accentual or quantitative.

Monday, September 06, 2004

Lagrange, Joseph-louis, Comte De L'empire

Lagrange was from a well-to-do family of French origin on his father's side.

Friday, September 03, 2004

National Alliance

The MSI was formed in 1946 by supporters of former Italian leader Benito Mussolini from elements of the defunct Uomo Qualunque (Average Man) Party that had appeared in 1945. It first contested elections in 1948, when it won six seats in the Chamber of Deputies. From the 1950s

Wednesday, September 01, 2004


Of humble origins, Alaungpaya was a village headman from the