Saturday, October 30, 2004

Wu Hsing

The Wu hsing cycle served as a broad explanatory

Friday, October 29, 2004

Mathematics, Foundations Of, The axiomatic method

The idea is this: there are a number of basic

D'urfey, Thomas

Patronized by King Charles II, whom he entertained as a jester

Thursday, October 28, 2004

Delibes, (clément-philibert-)léo

French opera and ballet composer who was the first to write music of high quality for the ballet. His pioneering symphonic work for the ballet opened up a field for serious composers, and his influence can be traced in the work of Tchaikovsky and others who wrote for the dance. His own music—light, graceful, elegant, with a tendency

Tuesday, October 26, 2004


(Cephalotaxus species), any of about seven species of small coniferous trees and shrubs in the genus Cephalotaxus, comprising the plum-yew family (Cephalotaxaceae). Native to central and eastern Asia, these plants are used in many temperate-zone areas as ornamentals. The small, fleshy, plumlike fruit contains a single, hard seed. The Japanese plum-yew, or cow's tail pine

Monday, October 25, 2004

Alfonso Vi

Byname  Alfonso the Brave , Spanish  Alfonso el Bravo  king of Leon (1065–70) and king of reunited Castile and Leon (1072–1109), who by 1077 had proclaimed himself “emperor of all Spain” (imperator totius Hispaniae). His oppression of his Muslim vassals led to the invasion of Spain by an Almoravid army from North Africa (1086). His name is also associated with the national hero of Spain, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (El Cid), who was alternatively

Sunday, October 24, 2004


A dark biological pigment (biochrome) found in skin, hair, feathers, scales, eyes, and some internal membranes; it is also found in the peritoneum of many animals (e.g., frogs), but its role there is not understood. Formed as an end product during metabolism of the amino acid tyrosine, melanins are conspicuous in dark skin moles of humans; in the black dermal melanocytes (pigment

Saturday, October 23, 2004


System by which the United States aided its World War II allies with war materials, such as ammunition, tanks, airplanes, and trucks, and with food and other raw materials. President Franklin D. Roosevelt had committed the United States in June 1940 to materially aiding the opponents of fascism, but, under existing U.S. law, Great Britain had to pay for its growing arms purchases

Friday, October 22, 2004


Modern Greek  Ípiros,   coastal region of northwestern Greece and southern Albania. It extends from Valona Bay (Gji i Vlorës) in Albania (northwest) to the Gulf of Arta (southeast); its hinterland extends eastward to the watershed of the Pindus Mountains. The nomoi (departments) of Árta, Ioánnina, Préveza (qq.v.), and Thesprotía make up the Greek part of Epirus. The Pindus Mountains separate Epirus

Arts, Central Asian, Buddhist monastic dance

The second major genre of the performing arts to develop in Central Asia was 'cham, the ritualistic dance performed in Buddhist monasteries. The origin of 'cham may well be an older form of shamanic ceremonial dance in Tibet, but centuries of evolution within a Buddhist-dominated society led to the recasting of the roles and theme of the dance in keeping with Buddhist

Thursday, October 21, 2004

álvarez, Juan

A landowner of mestizo ancestry, Álvarez in 1811 joined José María Morelos in an unsuccessful campaign for independence from Spain. He was prominent in Antonio López de Santa Anna's revolt of 1822–23, which overthrew

Wednesday, October 20, 2004


Traditionally, diagnosis has been defined as the art of identifying a disease from its signs and symptoms. Formerly, few diagnostic tests were available to assist the physician who depended on medical history, observation, and examination. Only recently, with the many technological advances in medicine, have tests become available to assist in making specific

Monday, October 18, 2004

Mairet, Jean

Classical French dramatist, the forerunner and rival of Pierre Corneille. Mairet's characters, his verse, and his situations were freely borrowed by his contemporaries. Before Corneille, he brought to the stage the famous Cornelian figures Sophonisbe and Pulchérie, and he anticipated Jean Racine in two important names, Roxane and

Ambrose D'évreux

Norman poet and chronicler who accompanied Richard I of England as a minstrel on the Third Crusade. Nothing more is known of him than that he was probably a native of Évreux and was a noncombatant making the pilgrimage to Jerusalem. His account of the Crusade is preserved in the Estoire de la guerre sainte (“History of the Holy War”), a poem of over 12,000 lines extant in an Anglo-Norman

Saturday, October 16, 2004

Berg, Gertrude

In December 1918, while enrolled in a playwriting extension course at Columbia University, Gertrude Edelstein met and married Lewis Berg. Having begun

Friday, October 15, 2004

Dai Jin

Dai was one of the leaders in the early Ming revival of the Ma-Xia (after Ma Yuan and Xia Gui), or academic, style of landscape painting of the Southern Song (1127–1279), which came to be called the Zhe school (after Zhejiang province, in which Hangzhou, the Southern Song capital, was located).

Thursday, October 14, 2004


Modern  Bismayah  ancient Sumerian city located south of Nippur (modern Niffer or Nuffar), Iraq. Excavations (1903–04) carried out by the American archaeologist Edgar James Banks revealed buildings dating from as early as the prehistoric period and as late as the reign of Ur-Nammu (reigned 2112–2095 BC). Adab was an important Sumerian centre only up to about 2000. The Sumerian king list ascribed to the city one

Ahmose I

Resuming the war of liberation against the Hyksos early in his reign, Ahmose crushed the foreigners' allies in Middle Egypt and, advancing down the Nile River, captured Memphis, the

Wednesday, October 13, 2004

Bolívar, Simón

The territory of Gran Colombia, comprising what is now Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador, had now been completely recovered from Spain and its new government recognized by the United States. Only Peru remained in the hands of the Spaniards. It was the Peruvian problem that brought Bolívar and the Argentinian revolutionary José de San Martín together. San Martín had

Tuesday, October 12, 2004

Rocky Mountains, Soils

Mountain soils in the Rockies are poorly developed, being extremely thin and young and too deficient in nutrients for most types of agriculture. High-valley soils are sometimes suitable for irrigation, depending on texture, steepness of slopes, length of snow cover, and the presence of trace elements (e.g., selenium) that limit suitability for crop cultivation. Rangeland

Sunday, October 10, 2004

Memory Abnormality, Traumatic amnesia

On recovery of consciousness after trauma, a person who has been knocked out by a blow on the head at first typically is dazed, confused, and imperfectly aware of his whereabouts and circumstances. This so-called posttraumatic confusional state may last for an hour or so up to several days or even weeks. While in this condition, the individual appears unable to store

China, Population movements

Censuses taken during the Sui and T'ang dynasties provide some evidence as to population changes. Surviving figures for 609 and for 742, representing two of the most complete of the earlier Chinese population registrations, give totals of some 9,000,000 households, or slightly more than 50,000,000 persons. Contemporary officials considered that only about 70 percent of the population was

Saturday, October 09, 2004

Egypt, The Valley

The cultivated portion of the Nile Valley between Cairo and Aswan varies from five to 10 miles in width, although there are places where it narrows to a few hundred yards and others where it broadens to 14 miles. Since the completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1970, the 2,500,000-acre valley has been under perennial irrigation. The inhabitants of the Valley from Cairo up to Aswan muhafazah are referred

Friday, October 08, 2004

China, The practice of government

As the final arbiter of power, the emperor—and at times the empress dowager—issued edicts declaring the Imperial will. Such instructions often took the form of repeating officials' proposals with a note of approval. Some edicts were couched as comments on the current situation and called in general terms for an improvement in the quality of government or for more

Thursday, October 07, 2004

Caesar, Julius

Caesar changed the course of the history of the Greco-Roman world decisively and irreversibly.

Wednesday, October 06, 2004


Musical composition for four instruments or voices; also the group of four performers. Although any music in four parts can be performed by four individuals, the term has come to be used primarily in referring to the string quartet (two violins, viola, and cello), which has been the predominant genre of chamber music since about 1750. The term may also denote such derivatives

Tuesday, October 05, 2004

Buys, Paulus

The harsh religious persecution and high taxes of the Duke of Alba's regime (1567–73) led Buys to join the resistance to the Spanish government, working

Monday, October 04, 2004

Rye House Plot

(1683), alleged Whig conspiracy to assassinate or mount an insurrection against Charles II of England because of his pro-Roman Catholic policies. The plot drew its name from Rye House at Hoddeston, Hertfordshire, near which ran a narrow road where Charles was supposed to be killed as he traveled from a horse meet at Newmarket. By chance, according to the official narrative,

Sunday, October 03, 2004


English  Styria  Bundesland (federal province), southeastern and central Austria, bordering Slovenia on the south and bounded by Bundesländer Kärnten (Carinthia) on the south, Salzburg on the west, Oberösterreich and Niederösterreich (Upper and Lower Austria) on the north, and Burgenland on the east. It has an area of 6,327 sq mi (16,387 sq km). Upper Steiermark extends in the north from the Limestone

Saturday, October 02, 2004


Also called  dyspepsia  any or all of the symptoms—abdominal discomfort, belching, flatulence, aversion to eating, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, heartburn—associated with the malfunctioning of the digestive system. Indigestion may be caused by disease, but it primarily occurs because of stress, improper eating habits, excessive smoking, exorbitant consumption of coffee or