Tuesday, November 30, 2004


(Spanish: “caldron”), large bowlshaped volcanic depression more than one kilometre in diameter and rimmed by infacing scarps. Calderas usually, if not always, form by the collapse of the top of a volcanic cone or group of cones because of removal of the support formerly furnished by an underlying body of magma (molten rock). Often this collapse is of a composite cone that

Sunday, November 28, 2004

González De Mendoza, Pedro, Cardinal

Mendoza, the fifth son of the poet Iñigo López de Mendoza, marqués de Santillana, studied at the University of Salamanca. After serving as chaplain to King John II, he

Saturday, November 27, 2004

Fisher, Clara

Fisher made her stage debut in 1817, at the age of six, in a children's adaptation of David Garrick's Lilliput at the Drury Lane Theatre. Her performance in that and in an afterpiece of excerpts from Richard III captivated

France, History Of, France from 1490 to 1715

David Buisseret and Bernard Barbiche (eds.), Les “Économies Royales” de Sully (1970), offers an excellent analysis of Sully's political history of the reign of Henry IV; Roger Douçet, Les Institutions de la France au XVIe siècle, 2 vol. (1948), examines central, local, and religious bodies; and A.D. Lublinskaya, French Absolutism: The Crucial Phase, 1620–1629 (1968; originally published in Russian, 1965), discusses the economic crisis of the 17th century. Political corruption is studied in Roland Mousnier, La Vénalité des offices sous Henri IV et Louis XIII, 2nd rev. ed. (1971); and Roland Mousnier (ed.), Lettres et mémoires adressés au Chancelier Séguier, 1633–1649, 2 vol. (1964), the introduction to which also contains Mousnier's conclusions on the controversial subject of popular uprisings during this period. For more on this subject, see Boris Porchnev, Les Soulèvements populaires en France de 1623 à 1648 (1963, reissued 1972). Orest Ranum, Richelieu and the Councillors of Louis XIII (1963, reprinted 1976), is important for an understanding of Richelieu's real position; see also Joseph Bergin, Cardinal Richelieu: Power and the Pursuit of Wealth (1985). Detailed analyses of political forces include J.H. Shennan, The Parlement of Paris (1968); A. Lloyd Moote, The Revolt of the Judges: The Parlement of Paris and the Fronde, 1643–1652 (1972); N.M. Sutherland, The French Secretaries of State in the Age of Catherine de Medici (1962, reprinted 1976); Richard Bonney, The King's Debts: Finance and Politics in France, 1589–1661 (1981), and Society and Government in France Under Richelieu and Mazarin, 1624–61 (1988); and Mark Greengrass, France in the Age of Henri IV: The Struggle for Stability (1984). A survey of constitutional history is offered in Sarah Hanley, The Lit de Justice of the Kings of France: Constitutional Ideology in Legend, Ritual, and Discourse (1983). Robert R. Harding, Anatomy of a Power Elite: The Provincial Governors of Early Modern France (1978), examines local governments. Decentralization in government is discussed in Sharon Kettering, Patrons, Brokers, and Clients in Seventeenth-Century France (1986); and political representation in J. Russell Major, Representative Government in Early Modern France (1980). See also R.J. Knecht, Francis I (1982); and David Parker, The Making of French Absolutism (1983). Donald R. Kelley, The Beginning of Ideology: Consciousness and Society in the French Reformation (1981), is a study of political thought; see also Jean Orcibal, Saint-Cyran et le jansénisme (1961). On social conditions, see Robert Mandrou, Classes et luttes de classes en France au début du XVIIe siècle (1965); James R. Farr, Hands of Honor: Artisans and Their World in Dijon, 1550–1650 (1988); and Georges Vigarello, Concepts of Cleanliness: Changing Attitudes in France Since the Middle Ages (1988; originally published in French, 1985).

Thursday, November 25, 2004

Siwa Oasis

Arabic  Wahat Siwah  oasis in Matruh muhafazah (governorate), western Egypt. It lies near the Libyan frontier, 350 miles (560 km) west-southwest of Cairo. The oasis is 6 miles (10 km) long by 4–5 miles (6–8 km) wide and has about 200 springs. Two rock outcrops provide the sites of the old walled settlements of Siwa and Aghurmi, which are veritable fortresses. The oasis is inhabited by Berber-speaking Sudanic peoples who live in mud-brick

San Bernardino Pass

German  Sankt Bernhardinpass,  Italian  Passo Di San Bernardino,   mountain pass (6,775 ft [2,065 m]), in the Lepontine Alps of Graubünden canton, southeastern Switzerland. Although the pass was not mentioned until 941, it is believed to have been in use since prehistoric times. The road over the pass connects the villages of Splügen and Hinterrhein in the Hinterrhein River Valley to the north with the towns of Mesocco and Bellinzona in the Moesa River

Tuesday, November 23, 2004

Wake Forest University

Private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, U.S., affiliated with the Baptist State Convention of North Carolina. The university consists of Wake Forest College, the Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy, the School of Law, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, the Graduate School, the Divinity School, and the Babcock

Monday, November 22, 2004

Regency Style

Decorative arts produced during the regency of George, prince of Wales, and the opening years of the 19th century as well as his entire reign as King George IV of England, ending in 1830. The major source of inspiration for Regency taste was found in Greek and Roman antiquity, from which designers borrowed both structural and ornamental elements. The classical revival of

Sa'adia Ben Joseph

Sa'adia's opus magnum was on exegesis. He prepared

Sunday, November 21, 2004


Originally, a calling card, especially one with a photographic portrait mounted on it. Immensely popular in the mid-19th century, the carte-de-visite was touted by the Parisian portrait photographer André-Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri, who patented the method in 1854. Disdéri used a four-lensed camera, which made eight 3.5- by 2.5-inch (8.89- by 6.35-cm) negatives on one full-sized plate. The large print

Saturday, November 20, 2004

Earth Sciences, Knowledge of Earth history

The occurrence of seashells embedded in the hard rocks of high mountains aroused the curiosity of early naturalists and eventually set off a controversy on the origin of fossils that continued through the 17th century. Xenophanes of Colophon (flourished c. 560 BC) was credited by later writers with observing that seashells occur “in the midst of earth and in mountains.” He

Friday, November 19, 2004

Wheeler, William A(lmon)

He was nominated as vice president in order to lend sectional balance to the ticket, and in his acceptance letter he alluded to the need to end Reconstruction, as Hayes subsequently did. Wheeler ran on a platform favouring administrative integrity, civil service reform, and aid to education in the South. Distracted by health and personal problems—his wife died just prior to the Republican convention in 1876—he retired from public life after his term in office was over.

Thursday, November 18, 2004

Arabia, History Of, The rise of Islam

After Muhammad's entry into Mecca the tribes linked with Quraysh came to negotiate with him and to accept Islam; this meant little more than giving up their local deities and worshiping Allah alone. They had to pay the tax, but this was not novel because the tribal chiefs had already been taxed to protect the Meccan haram. Many tribesmen probably waited to join the winner.

Wednesday, November 17, 2004


City, Kyongsang-nam do (province), southeastern South Korea. It is located on Masan Bay, across from Chinhae Bay, 22 miles (35 km) west of Pusan, with which it is connected by rail and road. After 1899 Masan developed as an open port, but it was closed in 1908 because it lay in a fortified naval zone. Masan's port was opened again in 1967. The city is the market centre for agricultural products from the

Monday, November 15, 2004

Computers, Lady Lovelace: The first programmer

Augusta Ada King, the countess of Lovelace, was the daughter of the poet Lord George Gordon

Floral Decoration

Cut plant materials, especially flowers, need special care and treatment before they are placed in vases. Ideally, flowers are picked some hours before they are arranged and never in the heat of the day. Generally, the bottoms of the stems are cut on a slant, placed in deep tepid water, and kept in a cool place, preferably overnight. Different materials have different conditioning

Sunday, November 14, 2004

Journal De Genève

Like the German-language Neue Zürcher Zeitung, the Journal de Genève was a national newspaper, serious in tone and generally liberal in outlook. Its careful and thorough

Friday, November 12, 2004

Benda, Georg (anton)

The third son of Jan Jirí Benda and his wife, Dorota Brixi, both musicians, and brother of the violinist František Benda, he went with his family to Berlin in 1742. He played violin in the royal orchestra (1742–49) and for nearly 30 years (from

Wintour, Charles Vere

British journalist and editor who, while at the helm of London's Evening Standard (1959–76 and 1978–80), turned the struggling tabloid into one of the nation's most highly respected evening newspapers; Wintour was made M.B.E. in 1945 and elevated to C.B.E. in 1978 (b. May 18, 1917, Dorset, Eng.—d. Nov. 4, 1999, Tisbury, Wiltshire, Eng.).

Thursday, November 11, 2004

Amadeus Vii

Son of Amadeus VI and Bonne of Bourbon, Amadeus married (1377) the daughter of Jean, duc de Berry, brother of the king of France. His father, the “Green Count,” wore his customary emerald-green livery at the wedding, and the groom earned his

Wednesday, November 10, 2004

Aalto, Alvar

Aalto's architectural studies at the Technical Institute of Helsinki in Otaniemi, Fin., were interrupted by the Finnish War of Independence, in which he participated. Following his graduation in 1921, Aalto toured Europe and upon his return began practice in Jyväskylä, in central Finland. In 1927 he moved his office to Turku, where he worked in association with Erik Bryggman

Monday, November 08, 2004


In bacteria, one of a group of extrachromosomal genetic elements called plasmids, consisting of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and capable of conferring a selective advantage upon the bacteria in which they occur. Episomes may be attached to the bacterial cell membrane (such a cell is designated F+) or become integrated into the chromosome (such a cell is designated


City, seat (1861) of Pueblo county, south-central Colorado, U.S., situated on the Arkansas River, near its confluence with Fountain Creek, at an elevation of 4,690 feet (1,430 metres). Jim Beckwourth, a trader and onetime war chief of the Crow Indians, established a trading post, Fort Pueblo, on the site in 1842; the post was abandoned in 1854 following a period of hostilities between whites and Indians.

Saturday, November 06, 2004

Bréguet, Abraham-louis

Bréguet was apprenticed in 1762 to a watchmaker at Versailles. He took refuge in London during the French Revolution and, upon his return to France, became a principal watchmaker of the Empire. Among Bréguet's many inventions

Friday, November 05, 2004

Shiga Kiyoshi

Shiga graduated from the University of Tokyo in 1896. Two years earlier he had begun work with Kitasato Shibasaburo, who had discovered the tetanus bacillus. In 1899 Shiga was appointed laboratory director at the Institute for

Thursday, November 04, 2004

Lat, Al-

North Arabian goddess of pre-Islamic times to whom a stone cube at at-Ta'if (near Mecca) was held sacred as part of her cult. Two other North Arabian goddesses, Manat (Fate) and al-'Uzza (Strong), were associated with al-Lat in the Qur'an (Islamic sacred scriptures). The Prophet Muhammad once recognized these three as goddesses, but a new revelation led him to abrogate the approving verses

Wednesday, November 03, 2004

Moscow School

Major school of late medieval Russian icon and mural painting that flourished in Moscow from about 1400 to the end of the 16th century, succeeding the Novgorod school as the dominant Russian school of painting and eventually developing the stylistic basis for a national art. Moscow began a local artistic development parallel to that of Novgorod and other centres as

Tuesday, November 02, 2004


The process of hereditary reorganization of wild animals and plants into domestic and cultivated forms according to the interests of people. In its strictest sense it refers to the initial stage of human mastery of wild animals and plants. The fundamental distinction of domesticated animals and plants from their wild ancestors is that they are created by human

Monday, November 01, 2004


Barangay villages sometimes grew to include 30 to

Pigalle, Jean-baptiste

Born into a family of master carpenters, Pigalle began training as a sculptor at age 18 with Robert Le Lorrain and then studied with Jean-Baptiste Lemoyne. After failing to win the Prix de Rome in 1735, he studied independently in Rome at his own expense from 1736 to 1739. While there Pigalle