Thursday, December 30, 2004

Yellow-dog Contract

Agreement between an employer and an employee in which the employee agrees, as a condition of employment, not to join a union during the course of his employment. Such contracts, used most widely in the United States in the 1920s, enabled employers to take legal action against union organizers for encouraging workers to break these contracts. A federal law prohibiting


In petroleum refining, chemical process in which light, gaseous hydrocarbons are combined to produce high-octane components of gasoline. The light hydrocarbons consist of olefins such as propylene and butylene and isoparaffins such as isobutane. These compounds are fed into a reactor, where, under the influence of a sulfuric-acid or hydrofluoric-acid catalyst,

Wednesday, December 29, 2004


On most networks, data can be simultaneously sent to a universe of users or to a select group or individual. Network users typically have an electronic mailbox

Monday, December 27, 2004

Trask, Kate Nichols

Kate Nichols was of a wealthy family and was privately educated. In November 1874 she married Spencer Trask, a banker and financier. Although she had had literary leanings

Sunday, December 26, 2004

Huygens, Constantijn

His diplomatic service took him several times to England, where he met and was greatly influenced by John Donne and Francis Bacon. He translated 19 of Donne's poems and

Saturday, December 25, 2004


Also spelled  Kerc , ancient (Greek)  Panticapaion , or (Latin)  Panticapaeum  city and seaport, Crimea republic, southern Ukraine, on the western shore of the Strait of Kerch at the head of a small bay. Founded in the 6th century BC by Miletan Greeks, it flourished as a trading centre, and in the 5th century it became the capital of the kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosporus. Abundant archaeological evidence of its wealth occurs in catacombs and burial mounds,

Friday, December 24, 2004


A field in the biological sciences concerned with the identification and description of the body structures of living things. Gross anatomy involves the study of major body structures by dissection and observation and in its narrowest sense is concerned only with the human body. “Gross anatomy” customarily refers to the study of those body structures large enough


Officially  Argentine Republic,  Spanish  República Argentina  country occupying most of the southern portion, or southern cone, of South America. With an area of 1,073,399 square miles (2,780,092 square km)—more extensive than Mexico and the U.S. state of Texas combined—it is the eighth largest country in the world. Argentina is shaped like an inverted triangle with its base at the top; it is some 880 miles (1,420 km) across at its widest from east to west and stretches

Wednesday, December 22, 2004


In the atmospheric pressure at sea level (760 mm of mercury), water boils at 212° F (100° C). When the pressure on a liquid

Tuesday, December 21, 2004

Andrea Del Sarto

Original name  Andrea d'Agnolo  Italian painter and draftsman whose works of exquisite composition and craftsmanship were instrumental in the development of the Florentine-Roman school in the first half of the 16th century. His most striking among other well-known works is the series of frescoes on the life of St. John the Baptist about 1511 and

Bruch, Max

At 14 Bruch wrote a symphony and won a scholarship enabling him to study at Cologne. His first opera, Scherz, List und Rache (Jest, Deceit, and Revenge, text adapted from a work by Goethe), was performed in 1858. He conducted orchestral and choral

Sunday, December 19, 2004


First motion-picture apparatus, used as both camera and projector. The invention of Louis and Auguste Lumière, manufacturers of photographic materials of Lyon, Fr., it was based in part on the Kinetoscope of Thomas A. Edison in the United States and in part on the Théâtre Optique of Émile Reynaud in Paris. From Edison's invention the Lumières took the idea of a sprocket-wound

Saturday, December 18, 2004

Levine, Jack

Trained first at the Jewish Welfare Center in Roxbury, Massachusetts, and later at the School of the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, Levine also studied at Harvard University from 1929 to 1931. From 1935 to 1940 he was intermittently part of the Works Progress Administration (WPA)

Friday, December 17, 2004


(trademark), a type of glass and glassware that is resistant to heat, chemicals, and electricity. It is used to make chemical apparatus, industrial equipment, including piping and thermometers, and ovenware. Chemically, Pyrex contains borosilicate and expands only about one-third as much as common glass (silicate) when heated. As a result, it is less apt to break when subjected

Thursday, December 16, 2004


Officially  Islamic Republic of Mauritania , Arabic  Muritaniya , or  al-Jumhuriyah al-Islamiyah al-Muritaniyah , French  Mauritanie , or  République Islamique de Mauritanie  state in northwestern Africa. With an area of 398,000 square miles (1,030,700 square kilometres), it has the shape of an indented rectangle measuring about 930 miles (1,500 kilometres) from north to south and about 680 miles from east to west. It is bordered to the northwest by the Western Sahara (formerly Spanish Sahara), to the northeast by Algeria, to the east and southeast by Mali, and to the southwest


A son of Alaungpaya (reigned 1752–60), the founder of the dynasty, Bodawpaya came to power after deposing and executing his grandnephew Maung Maung. In 1784 Bodawpaya invaded Arakan, the maritime kingdom on the eastern coast of the

Wednesday, December 15, 2004

Performing Arts

Officially  Islamic Republic of Mauritania , Arabic  Muritaniya , or  al-Jumhuriyah al-Islamiyah al-Muritaniyah , French  Mauritanie , or  République Islamique de Mauritanie  state in northwestern Africa. With an area of 398,000 square miles (1,030,700 square kilometres), it has the shape of an indented rectangle measuring about 930 miles (1,500 kilometres) from north to south and about 680 miles from east to west. It is bordered to the northwest by the Western Sahara (formerly Spanish Sahara), to the northeast by Algeria, to the east and southeast by Mali, and to the southwest

Tuesday, December 14, 2004

Corelli, Franco

Italian tenor (b. April 8, 1921, Ancona, Italy—d. Oct. 29, 2003, Milan, Italy), thrilled opera audiences throughout the world with his passion, power, and charisma, particularly in heroic roles. Corelli made his opera debut in 1951 at Spoleto as Don José in Carmen, first sang at Milan's La Scala in 1954 with Maria Callas in Gaspare Spontini's La vestale, and went on to become an international star. He retired

Sunday, December 12, 2004

Olympiodorus The Younger

A Neoplatonist philosopher who is famous for having maintained the Platonic tradition in Alexandria after the Byzantine emperor Justinian had suppressed the Greek Academy at Athens and other pagan schools in AD 529. Olympiodorus' extant works include lucid and valuable commentaries on Plato's Phaedo, Gorgias, Philebus, and Alcibiades; a biography of Plato;

Saturday, December 11, 2004

Theatre, Western, Off-Broadway

This phenomenon developed as a reaction to the commercialism of New York theatre. More experimental plays could be presented in smaller buildings outside the main theatre district. The artistic success of many of these productions meant that some writers (Edward Albee, for example), could graduate to Broadway. Off-Broadway also enabled black playwrights such

Friday, December 10, 2004

Biblical Literature, Bel and the Dragon

The third Greek addition to the Book of Daniel is the story of Bel and the Dragon. The Babylonians worshipped the idol of the god Bel and daily provided him with much food, but Daniel proved to the King that the food was in reality eaten by the priests. The priests were punished by death and Bel's temple destroyed. The Babylonians also worshipped a dragon, but Daniel declined

Thursday, December 09, 2004

China, The Chou and Ch'in dynasties

This transitional period is examined in Chi Li, The Formation of the Chinese People (1928, reprinted 1967), useful for information on the ethnic history of ancient China; Herlee Glessner Creel, The Birth of China (1937, reprinted 1954), still regarded as one of the standard references, and The Origins of Statecraft in China, vol. 1 (1970), the first Western book to include extensive materials from bronze inscriptions—especially significant on the activities of non-Chou peoples; Cho-yun Hsu, Ancient China in Transition (1965), a standard work on social structure and social mobility in the Chou period; Derk Bodde, China's First Unifier (1938, reprinted 1967), and Statesman, Patriot, and General in Ancient China (1940, reprinted 1967), works covering the effort of the first emperors and their courts to accomplish unification; Arthur Cotterell, The First Emperor of China (1981), a popular history that includes a description and historical analysis of 7,000 terra-cotta life-size figures buried in 210 BC; Yu-ning Li, The First Emperor of China (1975), Yu-lan Fung, A History of Chinese Philosophy, 2nd ed., 2 vol., trans. from the Chinese (1952–53, reprinted 1983), coverage of the thought of different schools in ancient China; and Xueqin Li, Eastern Zhou and Qin Civilizations (1986), an account of archaeological findings of the period from the 8th to the 3rd century BC.

Wednesday, December 08, 2004


Stomata are small mouthlike structures

Tuesday, December 07, 2004

Earth Sciences, Ore deposits and mineralogy

The German scientist Georgius Agricola has with much justification been called the father of mineralogy. Of his seven geologic books, De natura fossilium (1546; “On Natural

Sunday, December 05, 2004


Locality, Neath Port Talbot county borough, historic county of Glamorgan (Morgannwg), Wales. Situated inland of the sandy Margam Burrows at the base of the peaks Mynydd Margam and Moel Ton-mawr, the community of Margam developed around a Cistercian abbey founded by Robert, earl of Gloucester, in 1147. Margam Abbey was a prominent cultural and educational centre until its

Saturday, December 04, 2004

Angular Velocity

In engineering, angles or angular displacements are commonly expressed in degrees or revolutions (of 360°), and angular velocities in


Traditional region in central Europe that served as the centre of a major medieval kingdom, known as Great Moravia, before it was incorporated into the kingdom of Bohemia in the 11th century. In the 20th century Moravia became part of the modern state of Czechoslovakia and subsequently of the Czech Republic. The region is bounded by Bohemia on the west and northwest, by

Thursday, December 02, 2004


The son of Italian immigrants, César quit school at age 12 in order to work,

Bach, Wilhelm Friedemann

W.F. Bach's musical instruction was primarily from his father (who wrote for him, when he was ten, the charming Klavier-büchlein vor Wilhelm Friedemann Bach of keyboard pieces). He also studied the violin. He matriculated

Wednesday, December 01, 2004


Formerly  (1919–40) Viipuri,   city, Leningrad oblast (province), northwestern Russia. The city stands at the head of Vyborg Bay of the Gulf of Finland, 70 miles (113 km) northwest of St. Petersburg (formerly Leningrad). First settled in the 12th century, Vyborg was built as a fortress in 1293 by the Swedes after they had captured Karelia. In 1710 the fortress was captured by Peter I the Great, and Vyborg thenceforth remained