Monday, January 31, 2005


Megye (county), southeastern Hungary, occupying 2,175 square miles (5,632 square km) of agricultural flatland on the Great Hungarian Plain. It has hot summers, severe winters, light rainfall, and a sparse natural vegetation. In the northern part of the megye, broad areas along the Körös and Berettyó rivers are irrigated. In addition to cereals, specialty crops of poppy seeds and sour

Saturday, January 29, 2005

Kertész, André

While working as a clerk on the Budapest Stock Exchange from 1912 to 1914, Kertész began to experiment with photography. During World War I he served in the Hungarian


Human disorder with many characteristics of premature aging. Affected persons have parchment-like skin, become bald or gray-haired early in life, and tend to develop diseases related to aging decades before they occur in normal individuals. Initially, progeria was studied as a model of normal aging, but because not all organs are affected, this is no longer thought

Friday, January 28, 2005


Circular toy adaptable to many games, children's and adults', probably the most ubiquitous of the world's toys, after the ball. The ancient Greeks advocated hoop rolling as a beneficial exercise for those not very strong. It was also used as a toy by both Greek and Roman children, as graphic representations indicate. Most of these ancient hoops were of metal. Most later

Wednesday, January 26, 2005

Altare Glass

Type of Italian glassware produced in the town of Altare, near Genoa. The Altare glass industry was established in the 11th century by glassmakers from Normandy and developed independently of the much better known glassworks of Venice. During the 15th century the great demand for Venetian glass and, consequently, its profitability led the Venetians to confine glassmakers

Tuesday, January 25, 2005

Grace & Co.

The company grew out of a Peruvian land and resource enterprise formed by William R. Grace in 1854. In 1865 Grace moved the business headquarters to New York City, where the company expanded into shipping. The firm was incorporated


Silver coin of ancient Greece and the former monetary unit of modern Greece. Its name derives from the Greek verb “to grasp,” and its original value was equivalent to that of a handful of arrows. The early drachma had different weights in different regions. From the 5th century BC, Athens gained commercial preeminence, and the Athenian drachma became the foremost currency.

Sunday, January 23, 2005


A legendary animal that has the foreparts of a winged griffin and the body and hindquarters of a horse. The creature was invented by Ludovico Ariosto in his Orlando furioso and was based on a proverbial phrase about crossing a griffin with a horse that was used to signify an impossibility or incongruity.


Racers compete in groups of two (sometimes called a match sprint) or three, and they frequently spend the early laps of the race moving relatively slowly and trying to manoeuvre their opponents into the lead, while at the same time following close

Saturday, January 22, 2005

Laos, Drainage

The general slope of the land in Laos is downhill from east to west, and all the major rivers—the Tha, Beng, Ou, Ngum, Kading, Bangfai, Banghiang, and Kong—are tributaries of the Mekong (Lao: Mènam Khong). The Mekong flows generally southeast and south along and through western Laos and forms its boundary with Myanmar and most of the border with Thailand. The course of the river

Friday, January 21, 2005


Administrative and historic county of eastern England, bounded by Suffolk (south), Cambridgeshire and Lincolnshire (west), and the North Sea (north and east). The administrative county comprises seven districts: Breckland, Broadland, North Norfolk, and South Norfolk; the boroughs of Great Yarmouth and King's Lynn and West Norfolk; and the city of Norwich. The historic

Wednesday, January 19, 2005

Cambyses I

Ruler of Anshan c. 600–559 BC. Cambyses was the son of Cyrus I and succeeded his father in Anshan (northwest of Susa in Elam) as a vassal of King Astyages of Media. According to the 5th-century-BC Greek historian Herodotus, Cambyses married a daughter of Astyages, by whom he became the father of Cyrus II the Great.

Tuesday, January 18, 2005

'abd Al-malik

In general, Umayyad rule was greatly strengthened by 'Abd al-Malik, who enjoyed good relations with the Medinese religious circles, an element with considerable moral influence in the Islamic world. 'Abd al-Malik was more pious than any of his Umayyad predecessors. His long sojourn in Medina had enabled him to know the sentiments of Medinese religious scholars. As caliph,

Monday, January 17, 2005


Also called  80 Ursae Majoris  star with apparent magnitude of 4.03. The ability to see the dim star Alcor with the unaided eye may have been regarded by the Arabs (and others) as a test of good vision. Alcor makes a visual double with the brighter star Mizar in the middle of the handle of the Big Dipper (Ursa Major); the pair have also been called the Horse and Rider.

Sunday, January 16, 2005

Computers, The Altair

In September 1973 Radio Electronics published an article describing a “TV Typewriter,” which was a computer terminal that could connect a hobbyist with a mainframe computer. It was written by Don Lancaster, an aerospace engineer and fire spotter in Arizona who was also a prolific author of do-it-yourself articles for electronics hobbyists. The TV Typewriter provided

Saturday, January 15, 2005


Also spelled  Chimmesyan,   Indians of the North Pacific Coast of North America, inhabiting the mainland and islands around the Skeena and Nass rivers and Milbanke Sound in what is now British Columbia and Alaska. They speak any of three Tsimshian dialects: Niska, spoken along the Nass River; coastal Tsimshian, along the lower Skeena and the coast; and Kitksan (or Gitksan), along the upper Skeena.

Capital Punishment

Also called  death penalty  execution of an offender sentenced to death after conviction by a court of law of a criminal offense. Capital punishment should be distinguished from extrajudicial executions carried out without due process of law. The term death penalty is sometimes used interchangeably with capital punishment, though imposition of the penalty is not always followed by execution

Friday, January 14, 2005

Abacha, Sani

Nigerian military leader (b. Sept. 20, 1943, Kano, Nigeria--d. June 8, 1998, Abuja, Nigeria), participated in the overthrow of three successive military governments before gaining control of the country himself in 1993. Having entered the army at age 18, Abacha was educated at military schools in Nigeria, England, and the United States and rose to brigadier by 1980. He participated in the ouster of Pres.

Wednesday, January 12, 2005


Old Paphos, which was settled

Monday, January 10, 2005

Human Disease, Diseases of genetic origin

Certain human diseases result from mutations in the genetic complement (genome) contained in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of chromosomes. A gene is a discrete linear sequence of nucleotide bases (molecular units) of the DNA that codes for, or directs, the synthesis of a protein, and there may be as many as 100,000 genes in the human genome. Proteins, many of which are enzymes

Sunday, January 09, 2005

De Niro, Robert

The son of two Greenwich Village artists, De Niro dropped out of school at age 16 to study at the Stella Adler Conservatory of Acting. After working in a few Off-Off-Broadway plays, he appeared in his first film, Brian De Palma's The Wedding Party (1963, released

China, Formation of a rival southern government

Meanwhile, in July Sun Yat-sen, supported by part of the Chinese navy and followed by some 100 members of parliament, attempted to organize a rival government in Canton. The initial costs of this undertaking, termed the Movement to Protect the Constitution, probably were supplied by the German consulate in Shanghai. On August 31 the rump parliament in Canton established

Friday, January 07, 2005

Giotto Di Bondone

In January 1330, King Robert of Naples promoted Giotto to the rank of “familiar” (member of the royal household), which implies that he had been in Naples for some while, possibly since 1329, and he remained there until 1332–33. All the works he executed there have been lost, but traces of his style may be distinguished in the local school. On April 12, 1334, he was appointed capomastro, or surveyor, of


A small squatters' settlement of stockmen called Canberry, or Canbury (a derivation of an Aboriginal

Thursday, January 06, 2005

Stone Age, Ax factories and flint mines

Celts, or axes, were manufactured in factories where specially suitable rock outcrops occurred, and they were traded over great distances. Products of the factories at Graig Lwyd, Penmaenmawr, North Wales, were transported to Wiltshire and Anglesey, those of Tievebulliagh on the Antrim coast to Limerick, Kent, Aberdeen, and the Hebrides. Similarly, large nodules of

Wednesday, January 05, 2005


Also spelled  Vratca >, or  Vraca  town, northwestern Bulgaria. It is situated in the northern foothills of the western Balkan Mountains at the point where the Leva River emerges from its picturesque Vratsata gorge. The town was moved to its present position in the early 15th century after the Turks had destroyed a previously standing Bulgarian fortress. Under the Turks, Vratsa was a prosperous trading

Tuesday, January 04, 2005


A penniless younger son of the French count Erard II of Brienne and Agnes of Montbéliard, John passed most of his life as a minor noble until befriended by King Philip II Augustus of France, who arranged for him to

Monday, January 03, 2005

Vance, Zebulon B.

Vance studied law at the University of North Carolina and for a time practiced in Asheville. Elected in 1854 as a Whig member of the North Carolina House of Commons, Vance in 1858 won a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives,

Saturday, January 01, 2005

Biblical Literature, Jewish versions

Though Jews in English-speaking lands generally utilized the King James Version and the Revised Version, the English versions have presented great difficulties. They contain departures from the traditional Hebrew text; they sometimes embody Christological interpretations; the headings were often doctrinally objectionable and the renderings in the legal

Earth, Faulting

Extension of the Earth's crust may result in the formation of numerous parallel ridges and valleys