Sunday, February 27, 2005


In full  Tiberius Caesar Augustus  or  Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus , original name  Tiberius Claudius Nero  second Roman emperor (AD 14–37), adopted son of Augustus, whose imperial institutions and imperial boundaries he sought to preserve. In his last years he became a tyrannical recluse, inflicting a reign of terror against the major personages of Rome.

Saturday, February 26, 2005

Velázquez, Diego

According to Palomino, Velázquez's first master was the Sevillian painter Francisco Herrera the Elder (c. 1576–1656). In 1611 he was formally apprenticed to Francisco Pacheco, whose daughter he married in 1618. “After five years of education and training,” Pacheco writes, “I married him to my daughter, moved by his virtue, integrity, and good parts and by the expectations of his disposition

France, History Of, Carolingian literature and arts

A renaissance movement occurred during the general renovation undertaken by the Carolingian monarchs; they supported the movement as an aid to religious reform and as a means to enhance their own prestige. The origins of the movement lie deep in the 7th and 8th centuries. It received great stimulus, however, when the growth of the empire brought the Franks into contact

Thursday, February 24, 2005

Mordvin Language

Member of the Finno-Ugric group of the Uralic language family, spoken in Mordvinia and neighbouring areas. The third largest Uralic language in number of speakers, ranking after Hungarian and Finnish, it has two major dialects: Erzya, spoken in the eastern portion of Mordvinia and the surrounding territory; and Moksha, spoken in the west. Although both dialects are

Wednesday, February 23, 2005

Hormuz, Strait Of

Also called  Strait Of Ormuz,   channel linking the Persian Gulf (west) with the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Sea (southeast). The strait is 35 to 60 mi (55 to 95 km) wide and separates Iran (north) from the Arabian Peninsula (south). It contains the islands of Qeshm (Qishm), Hormuz, and Hengam (Henjam) and is of great strategic and economic importance, especially as oil tankers collecting from various ports on the Persian Gulf

Ceremonial Object, Protective devices and markers of sacredness

Other objects, such as fans, flyswatters, parasols, and standards—analogous to the symbols of royalty—often complete the permanent furnishings of sacred places. In addition to their utilitarian role, they are endowed with a sacred character; fans used in Brahmanic and Buddhist cults may be compared to the flabella (“fans”) in the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches.

Monday, February 21, 2005

Hojo Masako

Masako fell in love with Yoritomo when he was exiled from the capital by his family's rivals, the Taira clan, and put under the watch of Masako's father.

Sunday, February 20, 2005


Agriculture is intensive in the


Small frontier state, central North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan. It became part of Pakistan in 1947 and lies on the west bank of the Indus River, 15 miles (24 km) north of the Tarbela Dam and northwest of Abbottabad. Apart from Amb, the main township, the state now consists of only three villages. The residence of the ruler (nawab), formerly at Amb, is now at Darband. The state is mainly

Saturday, February 19, 2005

Afonso I

Nzinga Mbemba, who became the sixth manikongo (lord of the Kongo) in 1506 or 1507, encouraged the penetration of his country by the Portuguese that had begun under his predecessor, Nzinga Nkuwa. Becoming a Christian and adopting

Thursday, February 17, 2005

Ness, Loch

Lake, lying in the Highland council area, Scotland. With a depth of 788 feet (240 metres) and a length of about 23 miles (36 km), Loch Ness has the largest volume of fresh water in Great Britain. It lies in the Glen Mor—or Great Glen, which bisects the Highlands—and forms part of the system of waterways across Scotland that civil engineer Thomas Telford linked by means of the Caledonian

Wednesday, February 16, 2005


Until the 1830s a minor trading post at

Aston, Francis William

British physicist who won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1922 for his development of the mass spectrograph, a device that separates atoms or molecular fragments of different mass and measures those masses with remarkable accuracy. Aston used the mass spectograph to discover a large number of nuclides

Monday, February 14, 2005

Bulbocavernosus Muscle

Also called  Bulbospongiosus,   a muscle of the perineum, the area between the anus and the genitals. In the male, it surrounds the bulb (the enlarged inner end of the structure that surrounds the urethra) of the penis and can be contracted to expel the last drops of urine or semen. In the female it is divided into halves that extend from just behind the clitoris to the central tendon of the perineum and

Benedict (xiv)

In 1417 the Council of Constance deposed the antipope Pope Benedict (XIII) and elected Martin V, thus officially terminating the Western Schism between Avignon and Rome. However, Benedict, protected in his castle of Peñíscola in Valencia, resisted until his death in 1423 and even reconstituted his court by creating four new cardinals. The intrigues

Sunday, February 13, 2005


Irish  Port Láirge  city, port, and county borough of County Waterford, and the major town of southeastern Ireland. It is on the south bank of the River Suir, 4 miles (6 km) above the latter's junction with the Barrow at the head of Waterford Harbour. Waterford became a cathedral city in 1096. The 2nd Earl of Pembroke, known as Strongbow, captured the place in 1170; and Henry II landed there in 1171. Waterford received

Saturday, February 12, 2005

Raymond Iv

In the early years of his countship, Raymond was a pious

Thursday, February 10, 2005


(foaled 1780), racehorse who, though a Thoroughbred who sired many successful Thoroughbred (flat) racers, was most important as the foundation sire of the Standardbred (harness racehorse) breed. A son of Mambrino and grandson of Matchem, he was foaled in England but was taken to Philadelphia in 1788. His descendants became known for their trotting ability, and his great-grandson

Systemic Circulation

In physiology, the circuit of vessels supplying oxygenated blood to and returning deoxygenated blood from the tissues of the body, as distinguished from the pulmonary circulation. Blood is pumped from the left ventricle of the heart through the aorta and arterial branches to the arterioles and through capillaries, where it reaches an equilibrium with the tissue

Tuesday, February 08, 2005

Wage And Salary, Wages-fund theory

Smith said that the demand for labour could not increase except in proportion to the increase of the funds destined for the payment of wages. Ricardo maintained that an increase in capital would result in an increase in demand for labour. Statements such as these foreshadowed the wages-fund theory, which held that a predetermined fund of wealth existed for the payment

Género Chico

(Spanish: “little genre”), Spanish literary genre of light dramatic or operatic one-act playlets, as contrasted with the género grande of serious drama or opera. Developed primarily in the theatres of Madrid during the later 19th century, género chico works usually dealt with Madrid's lower classes, whose way of life was regarded with mingled sentimentality and satiric

Sunday, February 06, 2005

Sachs, Nelly

In full  Nelly Leonie Sachs  German poet and dramatist who was transformed by the Nazi experience from a dilettante into a poignant spokesperson for the grief and yearnings of her fellow Jews. When, with Shmuel Yosef Agnon, she was awarded the 1966 Nobel Prize for Literature, she observed that Agnon represented Israel whereas “I represent the tragedy of the Jewish

Saturday, February 05, 2005


Literary allegories typically describe situations and events or express abstract ideas in terms of material objects,

Friday, February 04, 2005

Computer Security

The protection of computer systems and information from harm, theft, and unauthorized use. Computer hardware is typically protected by the same means used to protect other valuable or sensitive equipment, namely, serial numbers, doors and locks, and alarms. The protection of information and system access, on the other hand, is achieved through other tactics, some

Thursday, February 03, 2005

Argentina, Immigration and ethnicity

Heavy immigration, particularly from Spain and Italy, has produced in Argentina a people who are almost all of European ancestry. In the colonial period, though, the Spanish explorers and settlers encountered a number of native peoples. Among these were the Diaguita tribes of the Andean Northwest, a town-dwelling, agricultural people who were forced into labour

La Serena

Capital of Coquimbo region, northern Chile, lying on a marine terrace overlooking Bahía (bay) de Coquimbo, just south of the Río Elqui and east of Coquimbo city. Founded c. 1543 on the river's northern bank, it was named after the Spanish birthplace of the conquistador Pedro de Valdivia. Razed by Diaguita Indians in 1549 and rebuilt on the present site the following year, La Serena

Wednesday, February 02, 2005

Mid-indian Ridge

Submarine ridge of the Indian Ocean that is connected to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge; both are segments of the worldwide mid-oceanic ridge system. Entering the Indian Ocean from the South Atlantic, the Mid-Indian Ridge extends north to a point near Rodrigues Island, where it divides into two parts: one segment continues northward toward the Gulf of Aden, where it connects

Tuesday, February 01, 2005

Pacific Ocean, Physical environment

Otis W. Freeman, Geography of the Pacific (1951), surveys the physical features of the ocean; and Alan E.M. Nairn and Francis G. Stehli (eds.), The Ocean Basins and Margins, vol. 7, The Pacific Ocean, 2 vol. (1985–88), is comprehensive and highly detailed. Zvi Ben-Avraham (ed.), The Evolution of the Pacific Ocean Margins (1989); and H.W. Menard, Marine Geology of the Pacific (1964), explore marine geology and geophysics. See also Bruno Wauthy, Physical Ocean Environment in the South Pacific Commission Area (1986), a short but valuable summary of the oceanography of the central and South Pacific, prepared as a regional report under the United Nations Environment Programme.